Herbs in Chinese medicine
Fairly complete data on the history of herbal medicine survived in one of the most ancient countries in China. Representatives of traditional medicine of China was used mainly for medicinal plant resources.
The history of Chinese medicine, based on documentary data, has 4,000 years history, but in fact it originated much earlier.
The emergence of medical science in China refer to 3216 BC, when the legendary Emperor Shen-nun finished his work in medicine. The main medicinal substances in this work were of plant origin and it was named “Ben Cao” which means in translation into Russian language herbalist. (All subsequent books on medicinal plants in China were called herbalists.)
At that time in China was not literature and according to legend, the Emperor presented information about his work with the help of straight and broken lines in a certain combination.This work has not survived, and its existence is known only by later authors.The first Chinese book on medicinal plants, in which descriptions of the 900 species of plants, Dating to 2500 BC In 695, the Chinese scientist Li Di together with other specialists reworked the earlier released book about medicinal plants and wrote “Xin-Xiu Ben-Cao”. It describes 844 species of rastitelnost. This work is actually the world’s first state Pharmacopoeia, compiled by the team.
Well-known pharmacologist, who lived in the sixteenth century, Whether Shijing after 27 years of work summarized in his monumental work, “Ben-Cao-gang-mu” (“Fundamentals of pharmacology”) the experience of Chinese doctors over the previous century. In 52 volumes of his work he described 1892 medicinal products, mainly of plant origin. He gave not only descriptions of plants, but also methods, time of collection, methods of preparation and upotreblyaetsya for treatment. He also describes the anti-bacterial action of garlic, onion and other plants.
Li Shi-Zhen constantly studied methods of treatment folk doctors and led a strong fight, particularly against the then spreading “ever-living, drugs” tablets, made of mercury and other toxic compounds.Widespread in Chinese herbal medicine received infusions and decoctions. The number of source of products reaches many tens, which corresponds to one of the main provisions of the Chinese medicine on the treatment medications that medications do not treat the disease, and a large amount of signs, symptoms, syndromes, observed in sick. The composition of medicines should comply with the manifestations of symptoms. The last lot, and therefore, the composition of multiple drugs, the recipe is very complicated.For medicines used in Chinese traditional medicine, characterized by a more gradual compared to modern chemotherapeutic drugs the effects on the patient.
The Arsenal of drugs used in Chinese medicine, has more than 2000 titles, including herbal medicines (various roots, herbs, flowers, fruits or the bark of a tree) more than 1500 (Jin Xin-Zhong. Chinese folk medicine. M, 1959).
Cultivation of medicinal plants in China arose due to the fact that the collection of wild medicinal plants could not meet the increased demand in the era of the Tang – 618 – 909 BC
Many medicinal plant from Chinese herbal medicine have been borrowed by other countries. This applies to such plants, such as ginseng, known in China for about 4 thousand years, Chinese Magnolia, ephedra, licorice root, motherwort, skullcap, Burnet, onion, garlic, rhubarb, dawn, asparagus, Astragalus, cinnamon, camphor, ginger, musk, Mandarin peel.
In addition to ginseng, a widely popular healing tool in medicine in China is licorice. This plant is found in many medicinal formulations prescribed for fever, pain, cough, shortness of breath, etc. is Often used in formulations for children.
A number of plants used in Chinese herbal medicine are generic and for European: the mother-and-stepmother – flowers and leaves, plantain – seeds, Lily of the valley root, garlic – stem, Siberian motherwort herb, herb – herb, rose – root, medicinal rhubarb – root, burdock – seeds, Salvia root, etc.