Traditional medicine (hereinafter — N. m.) is a collection of people accumulated empirical knowledge about healing remedies, medicinal herbs and hygiene practices, and their practical application to maintaining health. the prevention and treatment of diseases. Handed down from generation to generation, this information is reflected in folk customs, Proverbs, sayings, legends and enshrined in a number of written sources (physicians, herbalists, etc.).
In primitive folk medicine was the only medicine; primitive people knew how to treat fractures. to straighten the dislocations. had no idea about the plants with analgesic effect, understood curative value of sunlight and water. With the division of society into classes N. M. has spread mainly among the poor, significant impact had on her superstitions, mythical beliefs, opening the road to quackery.
Medicine of the Ancient world are widely used the experience of folk medicine. So, a rich Arsenal of medicinal substances used in various forms (liquid, rubbing, compresses, etc.) used by the doctors of Mesopotamia. The Egyptians used for therapeutic purposes opium. Tibetan Buddhist medicine was seen as the mainstay of therapy in the use of natural resources: “there’s No such substances that were not good in cachestorenostore funds”.
National hygiene is the most ancient branch of N. M. laid the Foundation of knowledge, which subsequently scientific hygiene. Developed empirically hygienic measures already in the slave system into the legislation of individual countries. Thus, the Babylonian law “the seventh day”, during which it was forbidden all work, was a kind of regulation of work and rest. Literary monuments of Ancient India contain a lot of information about the influence of climate and seasons on health, hygiene, importance of exercise and proper nutrition to maintain health. Tibetan medicine has attached great importance to the impact on the body of clean air and sunlight, the Chinese people’s hygiene — healthy sleep. cleanliness and moderation in food .
The information that is accumulated in folk medicine are reflected in the works of the greatest physicians of the Ancient world of Hippocrates and Galen. and subsequently in the writings of Ibn Sina and many others. Scientific medicine has been used and uses many therapeutic methods N. M. for example acupuncture. For many centuries the inhabitants of East Africa have had a custom to treat progressive paralysis with the help of the febrile state (patients with syphilis were sent to a swampy area, where they fell ill with tropical fever). Caesarean section was successfully practiced by the inhabitants of Central Africa and so on.
In Russia, wormwood was used for fever, birch SAP for the treatment of purulent wounds. tar as a disinfectant, cowberry, cloudberry, Rowan in scurvy, etc. Many of the customs and Proverbs of the Russian people promote hygiene measures: “Live by the mind and the cure must not”, “From walking in lasino (soap ) body pure lives”, etc. Prohibitions, clothed in Rus in the form of “sin”, and many people in the form of “taboos” often expressed hygiene. So, the custom of eating apples only after the “consecration” in their feast of the Transfiguration essentially warns against eating unripe fruit; the idea of the “evil eye” of the newborn contributed to the prevention of hypothermia or infection of the child when considering his outsiders. Russian customs and sayings that have hygienic importance, collected by Russian writer, lexicographer and ethnographer Vladimir Ivanovich Dahl in the book “Proverbs of the Russian people”, where a separate section “Health and illness”.
Classics of Russian medicine: Russian doctor. one of the founders of the Russian clinical school Matvey Yakovlevich Mudrov, Clinician Feodor Ivanovich Inozemtsev, doctor-therapist, the founder of physiological studies in clinical medicine Sergei Petrovich Botkin, a Russian physician Grigori Antonovich Zakhar’in and their students studied traditional medicine and introduced into practice some techniques. Historians of medicine dragon’s L. F. and G. I. Starichenko belong to the original studies on N. M. the Tradition of Russian medicine were respect for the rational foundations N. M. and irreconcilable struggle with pseudonoise traditional medicine — medicine men, shamans, “attendants”, etc.
Widely studied medicinal herbs therapy, the research institutes of medicinal plants. The illegal practice of medicine by persons without medical training, is prohibited by law.